The Perfect Connection
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01 Oct 2005
The time is right to migrate to Linux, but the question is, where do you start--and how? Novell has a few ideas. This is the second article in a three-part series that describes six straight-forward migration projects. For each project you read about in this series, you'll walk away with an understanding of what you need to learn, know and do to install a specific network service on a server running Novell Open Enterprise Server for Linux.
Open Enterprise Server offers both NetWare 6.5 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 in one package, allowing you to incorporate one or both of these platforms into your network. With Open Enterprise Server, NetWare and Linux coexist peacefully, enabling you to run both side by side without a hitch. (See Livin' in Perfect Harmony.) Regardless of the platform (or platforms) you choose, Open Enterprise Server offers all of the staple Novell services including networking, identity, communication, collaboration and application services.
The first article described the steps required to install Open Enterprise Server for Linux complete with Novell eDirectory into an existing tree. It also provided an overview of the steps required to migrate Novell Storage Services (NSS) from an existing server running NetWare 5.1 or later to Open Enterprise Server for Linux. (See "Blow Your Mind", Novell Connection, July/August 2005.)
With that baseline understanding as its launch pad, this article takes a look at the steps involved in moving print and personal storage services to Linux. Specifically, this article provides an overview of the steps you take to upgrade Novell queue-based printing on a server running NetWare 5.1 or later to Novell iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux Support Pack (SP) 1. It also describes how to deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 as a standalone Novell iFolder 3.1 server.
Upgrading QMS on NetWare to iPrint on Linux
Many moons ago, you set up Novell Queue Management Services (QMS), which have served you well--maybe too well. Your queuebased print services have grown as comfy and familiar as your fungus-infested slippers and you loathe parting with either. Granted, queue-based print services work great, but walking across your room to change television channels works great too. Like upgrading to a remote control, upgrading from QMS to iPrint shaves off minutes and spares you inconveniences that you might not recognize as unnecessary.
Built on top of the time-proven Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS), iPrint inherits the manageability, scalability, reliability and ease of use that characterize the NDPS print solution. But the real power of iPrint hinges upon its wholesale adoption of the IETF-ratified Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) and its creative use of Web technology.
iPrint enables users to locate and print to any printer in your enterprise to which they have rights--whether they're in their own office or another's, telecommuting from home or traveling abroad. Users simply point a Web browser to a Web page (which you or a co-worker set up) that displays the available printers across your enterprise. When users click a printer, iPrint installs the iPrint client (if not installed previously), downloads the printer's driver and creates a printer on the user's workstation. Thereafter, users can send documents to this printer from any application on the desktop. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1: Novell iPrint makes printing simple. To print, a user simply clicks to select a printer from a Web page that displays a list of available network printers. iPrint then installs the iPrint client (if necessary), downloads the printer's driver and creates the printer on the user's workstation.
As with all Open Enterprise Server components, you manage iPrint using Novell iManager 2.5. This enables you to manage your printers from anywhereyou have access to a browser and an Internet connection.
Getting from the print environment you live with now to the print environment you dream of is not as difficult or time consuming as you might think. You decide. What follows is an overview of the steps you need to take to upgrade existing queue-based services running on NetWare 5.1 or later to iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1.
iPrint enables users to locate and print to any printer in your enterprise to which they have rights-whether they're in their own office or another's, telecommuting from home or traveling abroad.
Preparing to Upgrade QMS on NetWare to iPrint on Linux
To prepare to upgrade queue-based print services to iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux, you should know, have and do a few things.
What You Need to Know
To upgrade from a queue-based print system on Netware 5.1 or later to iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux, you must first upgrade to iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for NetWare.
You can easily copy iPrint services running on Open Enterprise Server for NetWare to Open Enterprise Server for Linux using the enhanced Novell Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit, which is included with Open Enterprise Server SP1. This toolkit includes file-and-print consolidation and migration tools that simplify the task of copying data from existing source servers to new destination servers.
The first time a printer is used, the printer manager requests from the driver store the printer's driver, storing it locally for future use.
You won't find the enhanced version of this toolkit (formerly called the Server Consolidation Utility) on earlier versions of Open Enterprise Server. Without this enhanced version, you have to manually copy iPrint services from NetWare to Linux, and, as you can imagine, that's not a pretty picture, so make sure you have Open Enterprise Server SP1.
iPrint consists of three main components (See Figure 2):
Print Manager The Print Manager is an eDirectory object and software that runs on the print server to provide a platform for Printer Agents. Printer Agents are entries in the Print Manager's database that represent actual printers. When you create a printer, iPrint creates a Printer Agent in the Print Manager's database and triggers the creation of a Printer object in eDirectory. As users submit print jobs, the Print Manager receives them and forwards them to printers when they are ready.
Driver Store The Driver Store is an eDirectory object and a repository of printer drivers. The first time a printer is used, the Printer Manager requests from the Driver Store the printer's driver, storing it locally for future use.
iPrint Client Open Enterprise Server SP1 includes iPrint Client 4.08, which supports upgrades from queue-based printers (as well as NDPS printers) on workstations to iPrint printers. The iPrint Client 4.08 enables users to install iPrint printers from a Web browser and, if the client is running on Windows, directly from applications.
Figure 2: Novell iPrint consists of three main components: the Print Manager, the Driver Store and the iPrint client.
iPrint Client 4.05 is available for the following platforms:
Novell Linux Desktop or SUSE LINUX Professional 9.2 using a Mozilla-based browser, such as Epiphany, Firefox or Galeon
MacOS 10.2 (or later) using Safari Browser 1.2
What You Need to Have
You need specific eDirectory rights to complete this project. The rights you need depend upon whether your upgraded print server is the first NetWare Open Enterprise Server in your tree.
If this is the first, you need the Supervisor right to your tree's [Root] object.
If this is not the first, you need the following:
Supervisor right to the container holding your print server
Read right to the Security container
Read right to the NDSPKI:Private Key Attribute in the Organizational Certificate Authority (CA) object (in the Security container)
Supervisor right to the W0 object in the KAP object (in the Security container)
You need a destination server running Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 on a machine that meets the system requirements. (For more information, check out Novell Open Enterprise Server Installation Guide for Linux at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/install_linux/install_linux.pdf.)
You need to download ISO image files for Open Enterprise Server for NetWare from www.novell.com or get them from a Novell Authorized Reseller. You then need to use these ISO files to create and label CDs. (For details, see the installation guide at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/install-nw/install-nw.pdf.)
You need to ensure that the tree holding your existing print server includes servers running NetWare 4.11 or later (and no servers running earlier versions of NetWare).
You need to ensure that your existing print server meets the following requirements:
NetWare 5.1 SP6 (or later) with either eDirectory 8.6 (or later) or Novell Directory Services 7
NetWare 6.0 SP4 (or later)
NetWare 6.5 FCS, SP 1.1, SP2 or SP3
Server-class PC with a Pentium II or AMD K7 processor
1 GB of RAM (recommended)
Super VGA display adapter
DOS partition with at least 200 MB available space
2 GB of available disk space outside the DOS partition (for SYS: volume)
One network board
USB or PS/2 mouse (recommended)
What You Need to Do
If you do not have at least one instance of NetWare 6.5 or Open Enterprise Server for NetWare in your tree, run Novell Deployment Manager to prepare your tree.
Deployment Manager is a set of utilities that help you prepare for the new installation of or upgrade to Novell Open Enterprise Server. Deployment Manager is on the NetWare 6.5 SP3 CD1 (Operating System) CD. (You create and label this CD from the NetWare Open Enterprise Server ISO images.)
You run Deployment Manager from a Windows NT/2000 or Windows XP Professional Edition workstation that has the latest Novell Client software installed on it. This workstation requires access to a server with a Read/Write replica of your tree's Root partition, and you need to log on as a user with Supervisor rights.
For this project, go through all of the Deployment Manager tasks and complete those that apply to the version of NetWare running on your existing print server. (For more information, check out Novell Open Enterprise Server Installation Guide for NetWare at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/install-nw/install-nw.pdf.)
After you have run Deployment Manager and before you run the upgrade, prepare for the upgrade by, among other things, logging out your users and verifying that the DOS partition has sufficient available space for the upgrade (200 MB). If your DOS partition is short on space, create a new partition and install--rather than upgrade to--NetWare Open Enterprise Server.
Upgrade your print server using the installation program on NetWare 6.5 SP3 CD1. (If you're dying for details, see the Novell Open Enterprise Server Installation Guide for NetWare online at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/installnw/install-nw.pdf).
Install the latest version of the Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit. The gist of this step is this:
Search for and download the Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit from www.novell.com/download.
Install the downloaded software on a network workstation that meets the following requirements:
Windows 2000 (with Service Pack 3 or later) or Windows XP Professional Edition
50 MB of available disk space
Novell Client for Windows 2000/XP version 4.91 or later
Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) 2.8
Upgrading QMS on NetWare to iPrint on NetWare
Good news: you can run both the iPrint Print Manager (ndpsm.nlm) and your existing print server (pserver.nlm) simultaneously on the same server. This means that you can make the transition from your queue-based environment to an iPrint environment at your own pace. To migrate from queues to iPrint on NetWare, you complete several tasks, including these:
Assign a Domain Name Services (DNS) name for each Print Manager.
iPrint associates a URL with each iPrint printer. This URL includes the DNS name or the IP address of the Print Manager's host server. By assigning a DNS name to the Print Manager, you can change the server's IP address without disrupting access to the installed iPrint printers.
To assign a DNS name, complete these tasks:
Add the DNS name to the DNS server (see the Novell DNS/DHCP Services for NetWare Administration Guide for OES at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/dhcp_enu/dhcp_enu.pdf or the documentation for your DNS name server).
Assign a DNS name to the Print Manager using the Print Manager's command line startup switch: /dnsname=DNS_name.
Create a Driver Store using the iPrint > Create Driver Store task in iManager.
Create and load Print Managers.
Create Print Manager objects in the eDirectory tree for each Print Manager you load using the iPrint > Create Print Manager task in iManager.
Load Print Managers using the iPrint > Manage Print Manager task in iManager, from which you'll browse to and select a Print Manager and simply click Load.
Create a Printer Agent for each printer using the iPrint > Create Printer task in iManager.
Associate Printer Agents and Queues using the iPrint Management > Migrate QMS to iPrint task in iManager.
Distribute the iPrint Client 4.05 using either the iPrint Printers Web page or distribution software, such as ZENworks.
Specifics for installing the client using the iPrint Printers Web page vary, depending upon the workstation platform, but the gist of the process is this:
Users enter the iPrint server's URL in their Web browser and then click a printer they want to install.
Because the iPrint Client has not yet been installed on this workstation, iPrint prompts the user to install it.
To install iPrint Client, users respond to prompts then exit and restart their browsers (See Novell Open Enterprise Server iPrint Admin Guide for Linux online at www.novell.com/documentation/oes/pdfdoc/iprint_lx/iprint_lx.pdf, pp. 24-29).
Upgrade QMS printers to iPrint Printers using the Edit the UpgradeQMSPrinters = entry in the iprint.ini file using a value of 1 or 2.
1--the iPrint Client prompts users to upgrade queue-based printers to iPrint printers.
2--iPrint automatically upgrades queue-based printers to iPrint printers without users' knowledge.
In either case, the next time users start their computers, the iPrint Client identifies the installed or captured queue, installs the corresponding iPrint printer and removes the installed queue-based printer. If you are capturing queues using a login script, remove the capture statements after all of your users' printers have been migrated.
Once all of your queues have been migrated to iPrint, delete the Print Server, Printer and Print Queue objects and unload pserver.nlm from the Open Enterprise Server for NetWare server that is now officially hosting iPrint.
Porting iPrint on NetWare to iPrint on Linux
The process of porting iPrint on NetWare to iPrint on Linux was once rather time consuming and tedious. With the enhanced Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit, this is a simple, drag-and-drop procedure. To clear this last hurdle toward the iPrint-on-Linux finish line, complete these steps:
Launch the Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit from the workstation where you installed it.
Select your source and destination trees (which can be the same or different trees).
From your source tree, select the container where your Print Manager is located.
Drag and drop either Print Manager from the source container to the destination container or drag and drop specific printers from the source Print Manager to the destination Print Manager. (See Figure 3.)
Figure 3: The Novell Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit that ships with Novell Open Enterprise Server Support Pack 1 enables you to port iPrint services on Open Enterprise Server for NetWare to iPrint on Open Enterprise Server for Linux using a simple drag-and-drop procedure.
The Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit prompts you to select an LDAP server, an iPrint Device Driver Store and a DNS name (or IP address) for the Print Manager it is about to create.
The Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit automatically creates a new Print Manager on your destination server and copies all of the Printer Agents from the source Print Manager to the newly created Print Manager on your destination Linux server.
Click the Migrate button or the Project/Verify and Migrate menu option and walk away: the Server Consolidation and Migration toolkit does the rest of the job for you.
Deploying Linux OES as a Standalone iFolder 3.1 Server
Novell Open Enterprise Server SP1 includes the brand-spanking new Novell iFolder 3.1. Available only for Linux, iFolder 3.1 retains many of the iFolder 2.x features that characterize this ingenious storage solution--and adds several new features that take it to new heights.
Like earlier versions, iFolder 3.1 ensures that the most recent versions of your data are where you need it, when you need it. The gist of the iFolder magic is this: you enable iFolder accounts for users on the server. Users install the iFolder client on one or all of the computers they use. When users work on a file in an iFolder, the iFolder client logs and tracks the changes they make. If users are connected to the network or the Internet, the iFolder client synchronizes changes to data in an iFolder on the server at prespecified intervals. If users work while disconnected from the network or Internet, the iFolder client synchronizes changes the next time they log in to the iFolder server.
Users also can access their iFolder account from anywhere they have access to an Internet connection and a standard Web browser. From the browser, users enter the URL for the iFolder server to log in. They can then view the directories and files in their iFolder account and download any of the files they want to work on. When they've finished, they simply upload changed files.
So what's new about iFolder 3.1? The most conspicuous new feature is this: users can now own multiple iFolders and can share with other iFolder users as many of these files from as many of these folders as they choose. Users dictate who can share their iFolder files and the level of access other users have to their shared files. (See Figure 4.)
Figure 4: With Novell iFolder 3.1, users can own multiple iFolders and may choose to share all or some of these folders with other iFolder users. iFolder users can upload files to and download files from the iFolders they own or share from anywhere, by way of the iFolder 3.1 Web Access Server.
Novell iFolder 3.1 offers new features that will appeal to you from an administrative perspective as well. For example, iFolder 3.1 enables you to back up your iFolder service or select iFolder accounts from the server disk to backup media. This means you can now restore all users' iFolders or all or some of your users' iFolders.
Novell iFolder 3.1 administrative functions are accessible now by way of Novell iManager 2.5. Included in these functions are iFolder policies. For example, iFolder 3.1 (like iFolder 2.x) enables you to dictate the amount of disk space on the server that iFolder accounts consume and also to specify how frequently iFolder should synchronize accounts during online sessions.
In addition, iFolder 3.1 offers two new policies. The first policy enables you to exclude or include particular files types during synchronization. For example, you might exclude mp3 files from iFolder synchronization, to ensure mp3 files are never synchronized (but all other file types are). Conversely, you can specify that you want to include only .doc and .sxw (OpenOffice) files in iFolder synchronization.
The second new policy enables you to restrict the size of synchronized files. For example, you might specify that file uploads or desktop synchronizations to the server can include files no larger than 50 MB.
Preparing to Install iFolder 3.1 on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Before you deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 as a standalone iFolder 3.1 server, you should have and know a few things.
What You Need to Have
You need a server running Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 installed using the Novell Open Enterprise Server installation option and running on a machine that meets the requirements necessary to support your projected operational and performance needs.
To determine the system requirements suited for your needs, set up a pilot program, as Novell recommends. You may also use your existing iFolder 2.x services as a general guideline. For example, to support 500 users with one unshared iFolder each and a 500 MB storage quota per user, you need a machine with a 1.8 GHz processor, 1.2 GB RAM and a 300 GB hard drive, assuming a 5 percent change in users' data each 24 hour-period.
What You Need to Know
Like iFolder 2.x, iFolder 3.1 includes two components you can install on the same or different computers: iFolder 3.1 server and iFolder 3.1 WebAccess.
Users can access the iFolder 3.1 server directly from any computer running the iFolder 3.1 client. Unlike earlier versions of the iFolder client, which run only on Windows, the iFolder 3.1 client supports the following desktop operating systems:
Novell Linux Desktop 1.0 (requires Mono 184.108.40.206.44342 for Linux, which is included on the Novell iFolder 3.1 CD)
Macintosh OS X v10.3 and later (requires Mono 220.127.116.11 for Macintosh, which is included on the Novell iFolder 3.1 CD)
MS Windows 2000/XP with the latest .NET support patches
Users can access the iFolder 3.1 server by way of iFolder 3.1 WebAccess from these client platforms and browsers:
Novell Linux Desktop or SUSE LINUX 9.2 Professional and a Mozilla-based browser, such as Epiphany, Firefox or Galeon
MacOS 10.2 (or later) and Safari Browser
Windows 95/98/ME or Windows NT/2000/XP Professional and Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 or later or a Mozilla-based browser
iFolder 3.1 is based upon an entirely new code set than iFolder 2.x. Hence, while iFolder 3.1 and iFolder 2.x coexist peacefully in the same environment, there is no direct migration path from one to the other.
Introducing iFolder 3.1 services will not disrupt your existing Novell iFolder 2.x services.
You can run the iFolder 3.1 client on a Windows workstation already running the iFolder 1.x or 2.x client. If you do, keep these caveats in mind:
Do not install the iFolder 3.1 client in the same application folder as the iFolder 1.x or 2.x client.
Each client continues to work only with the iFolder server of the same release (for example, iFolder 2.x client works only with the iFolder 2.x server).
The single iFolder that users are allowed to create with iFolder 1.x or 2.x coexists with the multiple iFolders they create using iFolder 3.1.
Old and new iFolders function independently; they do not exchange information or data.
However, users can manually transfer local data between old and new iFolders.
Novell recommends a maximum of 1,000 users per iFolder server, depending on the performance characteristics of your hardware.
When a user adds a new member to an iFolder, the workload on the server can increase almost as much as if you had added another user to the system.
iFolder 3.1 supports Novell Storage Services, in addition to EXT3 and ReiserFS file systems, for the iFolder data store.
iFolder 3.1 requires the Mono framework for Linux.
Mono is a development platform for running and developing modern applications.
The Mono Project is an open source effort led by Novell and is the foundation for many new applications. (For more information, see www.go-mono.com.)
The required version of Mono is included with Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1 and is installed automatically as a dependency of iFolder 3.1.
If you have a different version of Mono than the version included with Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1, uninstall it before you install iFolder 3.1.
Installing iFolder 3.1 on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
You can install both the iFolder 3.1 server and iFolder 3.1 WebAccess on the same computer or different computers. The gist of the steps required to do so is as follows:
From YaST2 on the Open Enterprise Server for Linux SP1, click Change Source of Installation from the Software option and specify the location of your iFolder software.
Again from the Software option, select Install and Remove Software, then click the Selections option from the resulting drop-down menu.
From here, choose to install the iFolder 3.1 server, iFolder 3.1 WebAccess or both.
After Installing iFolder 3.1 on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
After you install iFolder 3.1 on Open Enterprise Server for Linux, you'll need to configure the iFolder 3.1 components you installed (that is, either or both iFolder 3.1 and iFolder 3.1 WebAccess). The bullet list below includes only a sampling of the type of settings you'll need to complete to get your iFolder 3.1 system up and running.
Configure iFolder 3.1 by selecting iFolder 3.1 from the Network Services options in YaST and responding to prompts as necessary to accomplish the following:
Point iFolder 3.1 to your LDAP authentication server.
Configure the iFolder 3.1 system by specifying such things as its unique name and where it will store application files as well as users' iFolders and files.
Configure the Admin user to manage iFolder 3.1 services by noting such things as the user's fully distinguished name and password.
Configure the WebAccess Server by clicking iFolder 3.1 Web Access from the Network Services option in YaST and responding to prompts as necessary that enable you to do the following:
Identify the user-friendly path for accessing iFolder services on the iFolder 3.1.
Specify the URL and port number for the iFolder 3.1 server that this instance of iFolder 3.1 WebAccess serves.
Before you can manage iFolder 3.1 services, you'll need to install iFolder 3.1 iManager Module for iManager 2.5.
Once installed, the plug-in shows up as the Novell iFolder 3.1 option in the iManager Roles and Tasks list.
You install the plug-in using iManager from anywhere you have access to an Internet connection and a browser.
Provision iFolder 3.1 users.
iFolder uses the containers, groups and users you specify as Search DNs in the LDAP settings to provision user accounts.
You modify LDAP settings by selecting System > LDAP from the Novell iFolder 3.1 role in iManager.
You can use existing containers, groups and users or create new ones.
Distribute the iFolder 3.1 client.
Users can download the iFolder 3.1 client from the iFolder 3.1 Welcome page. (See Figure 5.)
From the Welcome page, users simply click links to Linux, Windows or Macintosh client, depending, of course, on their workstation platform.
Figure 5: From the Novell iFolder 3.1 Welcome page, users can click links to download the iFolder 3.1 client files for the Linux, Macintosh and Windows platforms.
You Are Here--Where to Next?
If you've read the first two articles in this series, you should understand what you need to have, know and do to achieve the following:
Incorporate Open Enterprise Server for Linux into an existing eDirectory tree
Migrate Novell Storage Services files from an existing NetWare server to Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Upgrade queue-based print services on a NetWare server to iPrint services on Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Deploy Open Enterprise Server for Linux as a standalone iFolder 3.1 server
The next article in this series, scheduled for release in the November/December 2005 issue of Novell Connection, provides similar information about accomplishing the following:
Moving Apache, MySQL and PHP/Perl server from NetWare to Open Enterprise Server for Linux
Setting up Open Enterprise Server for Linux to access an iSCSI Storage Area Network
If you can't wait until the next issue, you can get a sneak preview of these projects by reading Where to Start: Open Enterprise Server Migration Guide 2005 (www.novell.com/products/openenterpriseserver/docs/oes_migration.pdf). You can link to this migration guide as well as other deployment guides on the Open Enterprise Server Deployment Web site at www.novell.com/products/openenterpriseserver/deployment.html.
Livin' in perfect harmony
Novell Open Enterprise Server enables you to run its NetWare and Linux platforms side by side in your environment without complication, and in doing so, facilitates gradual migrations. With Open Enterprise Server, the two platforms peacefully coexist:
You can place NetWare and Linux in the same eDirectory tree
You can place NetWare and Linux in the same Novell Cluster Services (NCS) clusters
In these clusters, Novell Storage Services files can fail over from NetWare to Linux and from Linux to NetWare
You use Novell iManager to manage both NetWare and Linux
Users use the same Novell client to access both NetWare and Linux
Users use the same iPrint client to access iPrint running on both or either NetWare or Linux
* Originally published in Novell Connection Magazine
The origin of this information may be internal or external to Novell. While Novell makes all reasonable efforts to verify this information, Novell does not make explicit or implied claims to its validity.